The Basics of Shutter Speed

Shutter speed, alongside ISO and Aperture, form the backbone of photography, they are the first things to understand for folks going into photography and that goes to show how important these three are to photography. There is need to understand shutter speed, ISO, and aperture properly and how the three combine to produce great images.

The shutter is the part of a camera that opens to allow the passage of light when an image is being taken, it is simply like a curtain covering the camera’s image sensor and it only opens when the camera is fired and allowed light to pass through. The shutter only closes when the image sensor has done its part of collecting lights.

Shutter speed can best be explained as the duration a camera shutter stays open to allow the camera’s image sensor gather light. The shutter speed produces a different result when it is fast and slow and the results, either way, are important to photographers. When the shutter speed is fast, it produces a freeze effect and when slow, a motion blur effect is created.

The freeze effect caused by fast shutter speed can be used to capture an object moving very quickly, for example, a bird moving very fast. In the image produced, the bird is captured looking frozen, this is also useful when trying to capture an athlete in motion. The effect of the slow shutter speed is even more dramatic; it is often used to show the movement of an object with a blurred effect and such effect comes in handy for an advert on a moving vehicle, the wheels of the vehicle appear blur to give a sense of movement. For landscape photography, slow shutter speed is use to give waterfall a sense of motion as the water falls in with a foggy thick flow and this makes images look great and unique.

Shutter speed on most digital camera can be as slow as thirty seconds and as fast as 1/8000 second. It is worth mentioning that shutter speed is usually not measured in whole numbers but in fractions.

When taking pictures in very slow shutter speed, the skill of hand-holding a camera very well comes in very handy to avoid too much blur as a result of shaky hands, however, powerful cameras come with unique image stabilization feature to help stabilize images taken with long shutter speed and reduce blur greatly.

Depth of Field

The depth of field is a basic photography concept that must be understood by every photographer for manipulation of image focus to create dramatic photographs. The depth of field can be defined as the range of sharpness or focus of an image, the larger the area of focus, the larger the depth of field while the depth of field is said to be shallow when the area of focus is small. To further explain with practical examples, an image whose object is a flower vase in front of a wall is said to be have a shallow depth of field, if only the flower vase is looking sharp but a scenario whereby both the flower vase and the wall behind are both in focus, it is said that there is a larger depth of field.

There are certain factors that affect how large or shallow the depth of field of an image will be and we will be discussing them in very simple language, avoiding the more complex physics explanation involved. Three factors we will be looking at are Aperture, the focal length of the camera lens and distance between camera and object.

The aperture is often the most deciding factor when it comes to the shallowness or largeness of the depth of field. The aperture is a small opening in the camera lens that allows light get to the image sensor, it is always shut but opens when the camera is fired. The wider the aperture opens, the more the amount of light that comes in, the brighter the image produced and the shallower the depth of field. When the aperture is smaller, the images produced are with a large depth of field.

The focal length is another important factor in deciding the depth of field of an image. If the focal length is longer; telephoto lenses, the image produced will most likely have a shallow depth of field while for shorter focal length; wide angle lens, you get images with very deep depth of field.  A camera with a lens of about 400mm will produce images with very shallow field depth while that of 24mm will produce images with deep shallow depth of field.

The distance between the camera and object or focus distance is another factor that determines the depth of field of images. If you take a picture very close to an object, you will notice that in the image produced, the object in front is sharper and everything in background is blurry, which is why for group picture or landscape photos, images are captured from afar

The Exposure Triangle

Three basic concepts of photography relate together to properly exposed a photograph, hence the term triangle, the three basic elements are the ISO, shutter speed and the aperture of a camera. The aim of this article is to explain in the simplest way how ISO, shutter speed and aperture work hand in hand to produce the perfect exposure for an image. Before we talk about exposure, let us look at these three basic photography element and understand them.

Before we talk about ISO, shutter speed and aperture, let us understand the term “stop”. The halving or doubling of the amount of light responsible for the exposure of an image is what is termed as a stop. If a picture is underexposed, you add a stop of light which then doubles up the exposure and the image is brightened, also, halving the amount of light will darken an image that is overexposed.

The aperture is a small opening in the lens that only opens up when the camera is fired to allow light reach the image sensor. When the opening of the aperture is doubled, the exposure on the image is increased by a stop and when halved, the exposure is decreased by a stop and less light hits the sensors.

The ISO deals with the level of sensitivity of your camera to the amount of light available. With an increased sensitivity, your camera performs better in low light conditions, so at a very high ISO value, your sensors do not need much light to have good exposure but low ISO value means there is a need for a greater amount of light to create a correct exposure.

The shutter speed is the length of time the camera shutter stays opens to allow light hit the image sensors. So at the shorter shutter speed, a lesser amount of light hit the sensors and we have decreased exposure but when the shutter speed is increased from say ¼ seconds to 1 second, we have increased the exposure by two stops.

This three have to combine perfectly for have the right exposure for an image, there is no universal formula to the correct exposure neither is there a general exposure for images. It all depends on how artistic a photographer wants to be and the scene or mood to be portrayed. If an image is underexposed, then there should be an increase in the opening of the aperture and length of time of the shutter speed and for the overexposed image, the reverse is the case.

A mastery of the ISO, aperture and shutter speed is the major key to understanding photography, it goes beyond the exposure of an image.

Understanding Ambient Light

Ambient light is a term you will often hear a lot if you are surrounded with photographers or photography savvy folks. You will hear them use it often but might not quite the what the term entails. Some see the ambient light as the photography niche term for natural light and it can come from various sources. It is the light that is not setup, the type that is just present in a scene, it could be the light at a stadium or the light from the sun. It can be the light on a sunny day, the rays of the sunshine that passes through trees branches, the light in the home, the illumination of a city at night or the light in a concert hall, it is simply any light that exists in a photoshoot location.

In some pictures taken, there are more than one source of the ambient light, for instance a picture whereby a man is staring at a computer screen whose only source of light is a lamp facing the man, the sources of the light here are the lamp and the computer screen and they combine as the sources of the natural light in the room.

Shooting in natural lighting poses its own benefits, the most obvious is that it requires no fixing of extra or special light, which reduces the stress on the job. Other benefits of ambient light include:

  • Shooting can be done anywhere as there is natural light everywhere and this aids instant creativity. A photographer can decide to take a great picture just strolling through the street of a city.
  • It is free, you do not need to pay for it unlike special lighting, where you buy the equipment and might even pay for the setup. If you are looking forward to pursuing a career in photography, ambient light provides a platform.
  • The scene took in uncontrolled or natural lighting condition gives a sense of realness.

While ambient light has its good sides, one seemingly bad side to it is that it is not in your control and anything can happen while shooting. A photoshoot that is done to model certain wears, if done under natural conditions for example under direct sunlight can be disturbed if it starts to rain or if the weather changes. This unpredictability associated with ambient lights is why it is not used for professional shoots.

One of the best scene provided by ambient light is the scene caused by sunset, the rich golden color hue it gives is one that produces great photographs.

Understanding Focal Length and Field of View

There can some misconception when it comes to focal length of a camera lens but it is quite simple to understand it, the focal length is simply what the makers of the lens say it is, it cannot be changed. The field of view is another term that gets misused, some confuse with the angle of view, although the two are very different, one is a bit varying while the other seems to be less varying. In this article, I will be explaining these terms in very simple languages avoiding the math and physics involved.

The field of view is everything your camera with the lens can see and capture. The field of view is not necessarily what you see in the viewfinder as some cameras viewfinder does not have 100 percent coverage, so what you can see in your viewfinder is, in fact, less than the actual field of view. The angle of view, on the other hand, is the what your camera lens can see in different degrees, some cameras can shoot above 60 degrees and that will mean more coverage from an angular view.

The major difference between the field of view and the angle of view is that the latter is dependent on both the camera and the lens mounted on it while the former id dependent on the just lens and has the camera has no effect on it. The angle of view produced by a lens will differ on different camera but the field of view produced by a lens is universal irrespective of the type or specification of the camera it is mounted on.

The focal length is a characteristic of a camera lens and every camera lens has its own focal length which is usually measured in millimeter. The focal length of a lens is not subjected to the camera the lens is mounted on and the focal length will remain the same irrespective of the configuration of the camera.

There is a relationship between the focal length and field of view of a lens, it is termed the equivalent focal length, for example, the 70mm-400mm has an equivalent focal length of 70 (the math is not correct, just a statement to explain equivalent focal length). Now, the focal length of the lens does not change but the field of view can with some adjustment to the lens used in the shooting and the sensors on the camera.

The Eggs/Basket Myth

Memory card capacity doubles and prices drop by half with amazing regularity. Any time digital photographers start to make the transition from one common size to the next-larger size, doomsayers come out of the woodwork warning against putting all your photo eggs in one basket. The same folks who are saying it’s foolish to use a single 8GB memory card, rather than two 4GB cards (or even four 2GB cards), were panicking over the thought of storing their images on one of those new-fangled 1GB memory cards, rather than the 256MB versions common only a few years ago.

The fact is, unless you’re using a camera that accepts more than one memory card at the same time and you write each picture to both cards, you’re always storing your pictures in a single basket until you choose to back it up. The chief variables are how many pictures you’re putting at risk and the nature of the peril. If you use more memory cards, you increase your chances of accidentally formatting one or damaging another.

With CompactFlash cards, it’s actually more common to damage the camera through over-frequent insertions and removals than to lose images to a faulty card. Nor do memory cards work perfectly until they’re full, and then mysteriously fail. It’s just as likely that a 4GB card becomes corrupt after, say, 2GB of photos as it is for an 8GB card to flake out after 2GB of images have been stored.

Your risk is identical in either case. Would you insist that your family drive in two cars to each destination? How many people are riding in each car? How likely is a traffic accident in your location? Obviously, the risks are impossible to assess. Each photographer should realize that malfunctioning memory cards are also exceedingly rare, and each must decide for him- or herself how many images he or she can comfortably expose to such a minuscule risk.

In my day-to-day shooting, I use the largest memory cards I have (at present, 32GB cards) to avoid needless swaps (which would cause me to lose pictures that I couldn’t take during the switch-over). When I travel or shoot any kind of once-in-a-lifetime event (such as a wedding), I back up my photos on the spot — to two backup devices. I don’t care how many baskets I must use,

Cameras of Today and Tomorrow

Only a few years ago, dSLR cameras came in only one category — expensive. You could expect to spend at least $5,000 for a digital SLR from Canon, Nikon, or Kodak, and be thankful that the camera was that affordable. After all, it wasn’t long ago that digital SLRs cost upwards of $30,000, used a tethered 200MB hard drive, and gave you 1.3-megapixel photos!

Of course, dSLRs of the late 20th century were built on rugged professional camera bodies, and they housed very expensive sensors. The Kodak DCS 460 of a decade ago was basically a common Nikon body with a very, very costly 6MP imager built in. Although some digital SLRs that cost as little as $2,000 (for the body alone) made an appearance, it wasn’t until the original Canon Digital Rebel was introduced in 2003 at less than $1,000 (with lens) that the new category of basic consumer dSLR was born.

Although the distinct camera categories that I cover in the following sections have some overlap, these categories are still aimed at particular classes of buyers. Basic dSLR cameras The basic dSLR is the newest type of digital camera that has interchangeable lenses. These cameras are stripped-down versions of more advanced digital SLRs, aimed specifically at photographers who are looking to step up from point-and-shoot models but don’t necessarily want full-fledged systems that include all the bells and whistles. Typical cameras in this class include the entry-level Nikon, Canon, Pentax/ Samsung, and Olympus.

A typical compact basic dSLR is shown in Figure 3-3. Priced at around $500 to $600 (with lens), basic dSLRs compete directly with the more expensive point-and-shoot, non-dSLR cameras in the same price and megapixel range. The point-and-shoot cameras might have non-interchangeable zoom lenses that have a longer range (12:1 or more) while offering a smaller and lighter package that’s more portable. Figure 3-3: Basic dSLR models boast very low price tags but a lot of useful features.

I tend to avoid calling basic dSLRs entry-level models because that implies a tendency to move up and beyond the original dSLR to more advanced cameras, lenses, and accessories. In practice, a surprising number of people who buy these cameras are perfectly happy with the capabilities they have and may stick with their new dSLRs for years. Many of them never buy another lens.

They get great results with their basic dSLR and its kit lens, and they have no interest in upgrading. I think it’s terrific that vendors have recognized this important type of snapshooter and have provided affordable cameras with the features casual photographers need. Indeed, I was surprised to find that a very inexpensive Pentax model dSLR that I purchased had sophisticated weather sealing and advanced features that I would have expected in a much more costly camera.

The advantage of an entry-level dSLR over a comparably priced point-andshoot camera is usually faster operation and better image quality (even when matched in the megapixel department), plus the ability to exchange lenses. Those who never plan to buy additional lenses find the quality of the non-SLR adequate, and people who don’t shoot demanding subjects, such as sports, are happy with the point-and-shoot models, especially the models that offer a bit of manual control. Both groups prize the pocket size of point-and-shoot cameras and will actually pay more for an extra-tiny shooter. But more serious photographers take a basic dSLR at the same price every time.

Of course, these basic dSLR models do lack a few features that their more advanced brethren have — but, boy, are they affordable! You might be happy with one of these as your main camera or as a second camera body, particularly if your budget is tight. What do you give up? Most of the most basic dSLRs sacrifice a few features that you might never or rarely use.

These include depth-of-field preview, shutter speeds faster than 1 /4,000 of a second, or the speediest continuous shooting bursts. Some of the cost-saving measures add some inconvenience: Your basic dSLR might have only one command dial, so you need to press a button to switch between setting the shutter speed and aperture. Many skip the traditional top-panel monochrome LCD (liquid crystal display) status display and show all shooting information on the color LCD on the back of the camera.

Or the budget model might use only tiny SD (Secure Digital) memory cards, rather than the larger (and more difficult to lose!) CompactFlash cards found in many upscale dSLRs. Still, what you give up to save several hundred dollars might be insignificant if it means you can get behind the wheel of an honest-to-gosh dSLR today. Enthusiast dSLRs What I think of as enthusiast dSLRs are a step up from the most basic models and provide a true launching point for avid photographers who need to get into digital SLR shooting at minimal cost, but insist on plenty of opportunities for enhancing their capabilities later with new lenses, flash units, and accessories.

These dSLRs start at about $800 (often including a basic zoom lens) and range to about $1,200. These models are available from Nikon, Canon (as shown in Figure 3-4), Pentax, Sony, and other vendors. These cameras don’t sacrifice many features; the corners are cut in ways that probably don’t affect the typical photo enthusiast. For example, cameras in this class often are built around rugged polycarbonate bodies rather than the almost-indestructible magnesium camera bodies found in upscale cameras.

The viewfinder systems might use pentamirrors that are a little dimmer than the pentaprisms found in pro cameras, and magnification through the viewing system might be lower. It’s common for these dSLRs to have much less sprightly continuous shooting modes, too. For anyone who could never justify spending $1,800 or more on a dSLR, these models offer just about every needed feature with enough megapixels to produce very high-quality pictures, indeed.

They form an excellent foundation for building an arsenal of lenses and other accessories that remain useful even when the photo enthusiast upgrades to a newer model in the future. Advanced amateur/semi-pro dSLRs The next step up from enthusiast dSLRs are the advanced amateur/semi-pro models, which are cameras intended for more-experienced, advanced consumers/amateur photographers, but outfitted with enough features to make them attractive to professionals as a second camera body.

Indeed, some pros who have light-duty shooting requirements (perhaps because their work is more contemplative and they don’t fire off thousands of shots a day) use them as primary cameras. In truth, of course, no hard-and-fast set of features makes a particular camera a pro camera. Professionals can get excellent photos from any model that they care to use.

Figure 3-4: True entry-level enthusiast dSLRs start at less than $1,000 and have a full set of features. 60 Part I: Digital SLRs and You These dSLRs start at about $1,200 (for the body only). These models are available from Canon, Nikon, Fujifilm, Sony, Olympus, and others. Like entry-level enthusiast cameras, these cameras trim a few features to achieve their affordable cost and may use plastic bodies rather than the almost-indestructible magnesium camera bodies found in the pro cameras. They might lack built-in vertical camera grips and easy plug-in remote controls that professionals require.

They typically fire off fewer shots in burst mode, typically from 3 to 5 fps, whereas pro models usually have 8-to-11-fps capabilities. Professional dSLR models Although some models are priced in the $3,000 range, most professional dSLRs set you back a bit more — up to five to eight grand. (See Figure 3-5.) If you’re selling your work, the camera is well worth the cost.

Cameras in this class include the Sony Alpha DSLR-A900; Nikon D700, D3, and D3x; Canon EOS-1D Mark III, EOS-1Ds Mark III, and EOS 5D Mark II. These models take you all the way from 12MP up to a lofty 25MP (or beyond) and can, arguably, meet or exceed the image quality of the best film cameras. What do you get for thousands and thousands of extra dollars? Here’s a quick checklist of what your extra cash buys:

✓ Tank-like reliability: Okay, I really have no experience with how reliable tanks are, but they must be pretty good if being built like a tank is a positive. Pro dSLRs have metal bodies, excellent sealing against the elements, and rugged controls and components, such as shutters that can operate thousands of times without failing. A typical professional might shoot more pictures in a day than an amateur photographer takes in a year. I know one canine photographer (he’s not a dog; he photographs Pomeranians) who recently passed the 500,000 exposure mark with his pro camera and its original shutter. Professionals can’t afford to have a camera wimp out at the worst possible moment. So, professionals often purchase these cameras for the cameras’ ruggedness alone — and even then, true pros commonly buy multiple bodies in order to have a backup — or two or three. Figure 3-5: Many of the leading professional dSLRs have full-frame (1X crop) sensors, such as this model.

✓ Faster operation: Pro cameras generally have the most advanced autofocus systems available from a vendor, so they can take pictures right now without delay or shutter lag. They have large internal memory buffers that suck up exposures as fast as you can take them. And the speedy digital image chips process the bits and bytes, and then write them to your memory card. Exposure systems, too, are top-notch, both in accuracy and speed. Professional dSLRs are veritable speed demons.

✓ Faster burst modes: Whereas prosumer dSLRs are considered speedy if they can capture continuous-mode pictures at 3 fps, pro cameras typically can grab 4 to 11 fps without sweating. Those big memory buffers (to store images until they can be written to the memory card) and digital signal processing chips make this speed possible.

✓ More options: Pro cameras let you set up multiple sets of shooting parameters and recall them at the press of a button, so you can tailor your camera’s operation to particular environments. You might find other choices not available to lesser cameras, such as the ability to save images in compressed or uncompressed RAW format, TIFF, and multiple levels of JPEG quality. (You can find out more about file formats in Chapter 8.)

✓ Bigger sensors: Some pro cameras offer larger, full-frame sensors, which can be an advantage to pro shooters. These sizeable, non-cropped sensors are available from Sony, Nikon, and Canon; and a few so-called medium-format dSLRs, such as those from Mamiya and Hasselblad. (Chapter 2 explains lens crop in detail.)

Tracking The Ideal DSLR

When you upgrade from your first digital camera to a digital SLR, the stakes increase dramatically. A dSLR generally costs quite a bit more than the average point-and-shoot digital camera, so you want to make the right purchase the first time.

You also want to buy into a camera product line that has all the accessories you may want to buy in the future. Owning a very cool digital single lens reflex camera is little comfort if you can’t find that special external electronic flash that you need or an underwater housing that you absolutely must have.

The high stakes extend into the future, too. The dSLR that you buy now will grow when you add lenses and other accessories, and you want to be able to use those same add-ons with whatever camera eventually replaces your current pride and joy. SLR camera buyers have known for years that you can easily get locked into a particular camera system, so selecting the right camera today is a little like choosing a spouse.

If the photographic marriage doesn’t last forever, starting over with a new mate can be expensive and full of heartache. This chapter helps you choose your ideal dSLR now to ensure your future happiness. Features for Now and the Future Some have said that once, in the 1950s, a world-famous photographer was preparing to shoot a portrait of an important business executive.

The captain of industry watched him set up and made conversation by observing proudly, “I see you use a Leica. So do I.” Cracking a faint smile, the famed lensman replied, “I see your secretary uses a Royal typewriter. So does Hemingway.” The best camera in the world can produce mediocre pictures in the hands of a clumsy photographer. Conversely, a creative mind can produce stunning images when armed with the simplest of cameras.

Figure 3-1 is far from a stunning photograph, but I took it with a $200 point-and-shoot camera and a pair of $10 high-intensity desk lamps for illumination. I didn’t use any fancy close-up or macro lenses. You don’t need an expensive camera to take good pictures.

How Many Megapixels Does Your Camera Need?

People contemplating the purchase of a digital SLR often agonize over how many megapixels they should buy, even though you may find other factors (such as ease of operation and the kind and quality of lenses available for a particular dSLR) considerably more important in the long run. To a certain extent, vendors have (at least temporarily) alleviated this agony. In the past year or two, a surprising number of vendors have settled on 12MP as a basic benchmark number. Nikon, for example, has three 12MP digital SLR cameras — a basic entry-level model, an intermediate amateur camera, and a feature-packed advanced model that both serious amateurs and professionals love.

Canon, too, has introduced several 12MP models, and other vendors have followed. Of course, for most applications, you don’t really need more resolution. But, with competitive pressures being what they are, I don’t know just how long the 12MP plateau will remain the standard. (I urge those of you reading this in 2012 with your $499 21MP cameras to refrain from laughing.) Although more pixels usually equal more resolution and more detail in your pictures, the number of pixels you actually need depends on several factors:

✓ How you plan to use the photo: An image that you place on a Web site or display in presentations doesn’t need to have the same resolution as one that you use professionally — for example, as a product advertisement or a magazine illustration.

✓ How much manipulating and cropping you plan to do: If you want to give your images quite a workout in Photoshop or you often crop small sections out of images to create new perspectives, you want all the spare pixels that you can muster because high-resolution images can withstand more extensive editing without losing quality than low resolution images can.

✓ How much you plan to enlarge the image: Many people view most of their images on a computer display or in 4-x-6-inch to 5-x-7-inch prints. Any dSLR has enough megapixels for those modest applications. If you’re looking to make blowups bigger than 8 x 10 inches (for example, to make posters or prints that you display on the wall), you need a plethora of pixels.

✓ The resolution of your printer: Most digital images are printed on inkjet or dye sublimation devices that have their own resolution specifications, usually from 300 dpi (dots per inch) to 1440 dpi and beyond. Printers work best with images that more closely match their own ability to print detail. If you primarily want to create prints, the following section can help you gauge which capabilities you need in your camera and printer so that you can get the best output possible.